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Complete Turabian Citation Guide: Bibliography, Footnotes, Endnotes

Turabian citation format style, often considered overly complex and confused with Chicago style, proudly bears the name of its creator Kate Turabian who has composed this style format to help the students with citation and references for research papers, theses, and dissertation works. In our Turabian guide, we shall keep to Turabian 9th edition, but will also cover the previous editions to specify the differences and format specifics. In addition, there is a Turabian Citation Generator that is free for you to use in all of your citing challenges. The task of our Turabian guide is to help you see what is specific to this style, so you can use what you may have already mastered.

Turabian In-Text Citation Formatting Tips

Note: There are two kinds of Turabian style citing. First of them is "Notes – Bibliography" and the other one is "Author – Date". The first style format uses superscript number in text with footnotes at the page's bottom. It also has Bibliography at the document's end. The second style, "Author – Date", uses classic parenthetical author date citations like (Jones 2015) as an in-text citation. As a rule, Turabian Bibliography is also included at the end of a research in both cases.

  • Single book author citation

(Downes 2009, 65)

  • More than one book author

(Collins and Dundee 2005, 105-84)

  • More than six authors

(Laurens et al. 2011, 365)

  • Organization as an author

(Aberdeen Construction Labs 2002, 49)

  • Unknown author citation

In such case, use title instead of an author. As in example:

(“Geothermal Pipes Research in Melbourne Area” 2018, 22)

  • Authors with the same last name

In such citations, the authors are separated by initials, if available. As an example:

(Allen R. and Allen N. 2006)

  • Two or more works by the same author, same year

In such case, alphabetize sources by title and add a lower case letter. Write as in this example:

(Valdes. 2016a. Sally Rotter and Stolen Case)

(Valdes. 2016b. Sally Rotter and Travel Map)

  • Using multiple sources in one citation

It is resolved by using semicolon as in example:

(Marx. 2018, 21; Nieder. 2001, 11)

  • Source without page numbers

If no pages are specified, follow this example:

(Richards 2002, para. 1.12)

  • Unknown date source

(Collins, n.d., 21)

  • Electronic sources citation

For electronic sources, it is necessary to include as much basic source information as possible to help the audience identify and locate a source used even if URL has changed or became obsolete. However, access date should be included when there is no known publication date.

Note: when using "Notes – Bibliography" style, citing electronic sources is usually limited to the notes if it is not critical for the paper's contents and an argument being made. If author is known, for in-text citations, such sources are listed under the title of a website or name of an organization.

  • Footnotes Rules in Turabian Referencing

In our writing experience, most humanities disciplines require use of footnotes or endnotes in connection to Bibliography page. The classic (described above) structure of "Author – Date" is most frequently used for Sciences and Social Sciences. We recommend always consulting with a college or university professor to determine the required style.

Identification of notes in the text is done with a help of consecutive superscript numbers. An actual note should have an indent and can be placed either as a footnote at page's bottom or as an endnote in the paper's end. In order to create such notes, type note's number with a period on a same line as your note. This method fits best for the endnotes.

Still, superscript numbers can be used with footnotes as well. In addition to Turabian reference Generator that we offer, you can also use MS Word features, too.

  • Books citation

Citing books, include these elements for the first footnote or endnote and in a bibliography:

Author or editor; Title; Compiler, translator or editor (if available); Edition; Series name, including volume; Place of publication, publisher and date of publication; Citation page numbers (for footnote or endnote).

Include author or editor's last name and a page number, leaving out the title. If citing more than one work, include work’s title as well.

For the endnote:

  1. Anthony Tanks, Generic Code (London: Oxford University Press, 2005), 175-126.
  2. Ibid.

Ibid., short for ibidem, means "in the same place." If same page of same work is cited in succession without different reference involved, use Ibid.

If a different page number is used, include 2Ibid., 34.

  • Electronic sources citation

Use the same guidelines as for print books, but include URL and an access date.

  • Journal articles in print and online sources

For periodicals (magazine, journal, blogs and newspapers) articles, available elements should be included in a first footnote or endnote, as well as in bibliography. Follow this order:

Author; Article title; Periodical name; Volume or Issue(if available, both); Publication date; Pages.

  • If using online periodicals, simply add URL and access date or database name, URL and access date.
  • Moreover, include in citation database publisher and city of publication if such information is published. Remember to cite a version for an article that is available both in print and online.

Accurate Reference List in Turabian Style

Note: Here we provide both Turabian styles, including the notes part.

  • One author book in print

Note number. Author's First and Last Names, Book NAme: Subtitle of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher's Name, Publication Date), Pages Cited.

Author's First and Last Names, Book Name: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher's Name, Publication Date.

  • E-book author Turabian citation

Note number. Author's First and Last Names, Title of Book: Subtitle of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher's Name, Publication Date), Pages Cited, URL (Date access).

Author's First and Last Names, Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher's Name, Publication Date. URL (Accessed date).

  • More than one book author

2. Sam Baker and John Rocky, Make Your Dreams Come True (London: Penguin Books, 2014), 84-96

Baker, Sam and John Rocky. Make Your Dreams Come True. London: Penguin Books, 20014.

  • Three authors for Turabian citation

3. Sam Smith, Gabby Lennon and Wendy Clark, Home is Where Your Heart is (Brisbane: Publishing House, 2013), 58-64

Smith, Sam, Gabby Lennon and Wendy Clark. Home is Where Your Heart is. Brisbane: Publishing House, 2013.

  • More than three authors

4. Sandy Lorex et al., Fight for Your Right (NY: Random Publisher, 2009), 28-34

Lorex, Sandy, Jason Nash, Sam Taylor, Bryan Adams, and Amy Lee. Fight For Your Right. NY: Random Publisher, 2009.

  • Edited book Turabian style citation

5. Andy Griffith, ed., How to Illustrate a Religious Conflict (New York: N.Z. Norton Publishing, 2009), 88-94

Griffith, Andy, ed. How to Illustrate a Religious Conflict. New York: N.Z. Norton Publishing, 2009.

  • Chapter in an edited book

6. Jason Berry, "Business Resource Management Ethics," in Global Business Ethics, eds. David Newfound and Mark C. Cooper (Los Angeles: Turner Publishing, 2001), 188.

Jason Berry, "Business Resource Management Ethics." in Global Business Ethics, edited by David Newfound and Mark C. Cooper, 188. Los Angeles: Turner Publishing, 2001.

  • Dictionary / Encyclopedia entries

7. Chris R. Cunningham and Marvin Hicks, eds., Australian Aboriginal Culture. (Canberra: SW University Press, 2002), s.v. "Torres Strait Islanders."

Cunningham, Chris R. and Marvin Hicks, eds. Australian Aboriginal Culture. (Canberra: SW University Press, 2002).

  • Journal articles in Turabian format

8. John Stark, "Investigation Techniques and Analysis," Journal of Criminal Analysis 45, no. 4 (2001): 12.

Stark, John. "Investigation Techniques and Analysis." Journal of Criminal Analysis 45, no. 5 (2001): 23-27.

  • Website citing

10. John, Andrews, "Save Animals," Australia Weekly News, (accessed April 12, 2008).

Andrews, John. "Save Animals." Australia Weekly News. (accessed April 12, 2008).

  • Citing a lecture in Turabian style

11. Colin Poridger, "Introduction to Poetry" (lecture, Canberra College, August 3, 2005).

Poridger, Colin. "Introduction to Poetry." Lecture, Canberra College, August 3, 2005.

  • Citing source in another source

12 Jim Blockie and Heather Findlay, "Summer Weather Analysis," Journal of Thermal Geology 34, no. 2 (2002): 13, quoted in Brad Renfro, Climate Changes (London: McGregor & Pinch, 2002), 78.

Blockie Jim and Heather Findlay. "Summer Weather Analysis," Journal of Thermal Geology 34, no. 2 (2002): 13-15. Quoted in Brad Renfro, Climate Changes. London: McGregor & Pinch, 2002.

Note: These are far not all citation types of Turabian citations, but we have listed the most important ones for research papers and thesis papers. If your type is not listed here, feel free to turn to one of our writing experts.

Accurate Turabian Style 9th Edition Formatting Rules

Here are the general formatting requirements for Turabian 9 style. Remember that you should always check with a grading rubric to make sure that there are no specific rules and requirements.


  • Margins are 1 inch on all sides. Usually, no less than 1 inch and no more than 1.5 inches.
  • Both Turabian style 8 and 9 editions use 1 inch margins.


  • Use Times New Roman font.
  • Size font is 12 pt.
  • According to Turabian 9 manual, font should be no smaller than 10 pt.

Spacing Rules

  • The paper has to be double spaced, except the block quotes, endnotes, footnotes, bibliography page, references, tables, and diverse figure captions used in a research.

Page Numbering

  • Page numbers should start on the first page of paper's text, at the top right.
  • Title page is omitted.

General Paper Voice Rules

  • The table of contents should is based around main headings and subheadings.
  • Turabian style requires 3rd person with an active voice.

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Questions & Answers about Turabian Style

  • What is the difference between Chicago and Turabian?

Turabian style citation is a special version of Chicago Manual of Style for the students. It is directed at high school and college students who write papers, theses, dissertations that will not be published. Chicago style is aimed at professional scholars who are planning to get their works published. Turabian also has less instructions and is aimed mostly at social sciences disciplines. Essentially, it is a simplified Chicago style.

  • What’s new in 9th edition of Turabian style, compared to 8th edition?

In the latest Turabian manual, publication year can be repeated in citations that include publication month and day. As for new changes in "Notes – Bibliography" style, citation depends on website. For example, if it has print counterpart for a newspaper, the name is placed in italics. If there is no print source counterpart, it is not in italics. Finally, common use of "ibid" is no longer recommended. According to the Chicago Manual of Style, shortened footnote citation should be used instead.

  • When should I use Author-date style?

According to Turabian style manual that is based on the latest edition of Chicago Manual, parenthetical reference (author-date) is used for natural and social sciences assignments.

  • What are footnotes and endnotes?

In simple terms, footnotes or endnotes are used for references of work pieces in the text. Citing from a source, a superscript number is placed after quote or paraphrase that should correspond to citation, footnote or endnote.

  • How to cite YouTube video in Turabian citation style?

Citing a YouTube video (or any other media source), follow this template:

"Title of Video." (format). May 13, 2018.

For notes part (first and second time citing):

  1. "Online Education. The Benefits of Distance Learning," (online video), May 13, 2018,
  2. "Online Education."