When writing academic papers, students should apply the right formatting style. This post delves into Harvard referencing, a citation and referencing approach for Harvard-styled thesis, dissertation, research and essay papers. A style with which you format your paper should be unique to a given assignment or based on institutional requirements. Read more about other formatting styles such as MLA, APA, Chicago and Turabian.
Why is it is important to use references?
Plagiarism is the intentional duplication of existing works or quoting sources from a publication without giving due credit to the author(s). It is, however, noteworthy that sometimes students end up with plagiarized content even without knowing it. Thus, after using our Harvard bibliography generator, run your piece through on one of the plagiarism checkers to ensure it meets a set threshold of uniqueness.
Now, when it comes to Harvard formatting style, it is all about easy literary composition, including citing sources correctly in college or University papers. Let’s narrow down to specifics of a reference list and in-text citation, especially when using a system generator to create one.
Your reference list comes at the end of an academic piece, usually the last chapter. It contains details of cited sources within a paper.
Harvard-styled citations refer to fragments of quoted sources. The first approach of writing references from a book is when writer’s name and the publication date should appear in brackets like this: (Fitzgerald 2004) or (Veit and Gould 2010).
The second approach is when mentioning an author directly, in which case, it is only the year of publication that appears in brackets: ‘According to Veit and Gould (2010)….’
In cases when a student uses a generator to create references or quote information directly from a source it is imperative to include page number and year of publication like this: ‘According to UNESCO stats (2011, P.8), black leopards still exist, particularly in East Africa (Kenya) and were recently spotted after over a century…’
Citing sources using Harvard generator is important because it helps differentiate a student’s primary thoughts/opinions from secondary information/data. References, on the other hand, provide an avenue for further reading.
What are the components of a complete Harvard source generator?
Here is a quick preview of Harvard referencing that defines a complete bibliography, citation or footnote:
- Name(s) of author(s).
- Title of your source, which could be a book, website, journal, etc.
- Year of publication.
- City in which a book was published.
- Page numbers from which a student generates information/data sources or quotes in a research paper or any other type of academic write-up.
Formatting Style and Rules of Harvard referencing and citation style:
Author’s last name, first initial. (The year when a book was published-must be in brackets), Title of publication in italics. City: Publisher, page(s).
Take note of the following:
- Observe the rule of punctuation marks when writing your references with the help of a Harvard generator (see the example format above). Missing a comma or a full stop, or semicolons may mean you have used a different style to cite sources or it could end up being interpreted as a mix-up.
- Moreover, list your references alphabetically, usually with respect to the authors’ identity. In cases of several publications bearing with similar identities, it is important to create a list in order of publication data starting from the latest.
- Always adhere to double spacing, including when building a list of references.
- Edition should be indicated only if it is the second, third, etc., but not the first. Also, mind that when quoting from different publications by the same writer, list all of them separately in your reference list.
How to use reference/citation generator
There are many free online tools for automatic generation of a reference list, but it is important to choose a reliable one. You wouldn’t want to end up with a Harvard citation generator that is not foolproof. Moreover, while your project supervisor will always indicate the number of references they need in your list, it is important to have a minimum of ten. This way, you are safe from plagiarism. Whether you are a student in Australia, Canada, America, or the UK, there are many citation makers on the web from which to choose the best Harvard referencing tool.
Now, when it comes to using the Harvard referencing system at EduBirdie, here is how to do it properly:
- Depending on your sources of information, choose website, book, journal, magazine, newspaper or any other.
- Proceed by filling in details of an author, year, and title of book, location, publisher and edition of the copy in that order.
- Click ‘Generate’ and the system will generate a result for you automatically. Copy and paste it into your list of references.
Samples of Reference formats from different sources of information
Book with one author:
- Dedalus, S. (1902). My lady of the flowers. 2nd ed. Dublin: Copper & Sons.
Book with two authors:
- McThrill, T. & Williamson G. (2014). Time management strategies for students. Leeds: Harmonic Press.
- Johnson, A. (2007). ‘How homophobia affects women’. Gender Studies Worldwide, 13 (9), pp. 112-119.
Journal articles extracted from a website database:
- Johnson, A. (2007). ‘How homophobia affects women’. [Online] Gender Studies Worldwide, 13 (9), pp. 112-119. Available from: URL [accessed 11 March 2018].
Printed newspaper articles:
- Teddy, B. (1991). ‘What if plush bears were made of wood’, The Daily Harold, 21 June, p. 12-13
For web pages:
- Just what the doctor ordered. (2018) Available at: http://www.thewriter.com/what-we-think/blog/just-what-the-doctor-ordered/#.XHe2h4gzZPY (Accessed: 12 February 2019)